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EV Powertrain – Design and Components

January, 25 2022

One of the major challenges to the global community today is to reduce the negative impact that road transport has on the environment due to greenhouse gas emissions and green-house. Therefore, these types of vehicle emissions are regulated at national and sometimes regional levels. In order to comply with the strict regulations that are expected in the future, car manufacturers are forced to invest in various fuel-saving technologies. This has led to an increase in interest in electrification of vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) which can reduce fuel consumption compared to conventional vehicles, but also battery-powered vehicles (BEVs). BEVs provide efficient powertrain and no rear exhaust emissions, which is why they are currently considered CO2 neutral in regulations. When charged with electricity generated by non-renewable and renewable sources, BEVs have the potential to provide a free use phase.

Today the vast majority of the world's largest car manufacturers have developed their own BEV model, and BEV sales have seen annual growth rates, up from 54% -87%. However, relatively short-distance battery-related barriers (mainly due to prize limits) combined with longer charging time, prevented BEVs from entering commercial competition with fuel-efficient vehicles at the moment.

With this paper, we will explore the basics of electric car powertrain. As the name suggests, the powertrain provides power to the car. Powertrain refers to a set of components that generate power to move a vehicle and propel it to the wheels.

Components of an EV Powertrain

The EV powertrain has fewer parts than the ICE car powertrain. The components are described below:

  • Battery Pack - The battery pack is made up of many Lithium-ion cells and retains the energy needed for the car to move. Battery packs provide direct current output (DC).
  • DC-AC Converter - The DC supplied battery pack is converted to AC and powered by an electric motor. This power transmission is controlled by a state-of-the-art motor control machine (also called the Powertrain Electronic Control Unit) which controls the frequency and intensity of the power delivered to the electric motor to control the speed and acceleration according to the driver's speeding instructions. / brakes.
  • Electric Motor - Converts electrical energy into mechanical energy, which is transmitted to the wheels in a single transmission. Many EVs that use car generators can perform renewals.
  • On-board charger - Converts AC-acquired charging hole into DC and controls the amount of current flowing in the battery pack.

Types of EV Powertrains

An electric vehicle (EV) is a vehicle that is powered, at least in part, by electricity. EV preparation includes battery-powered electric vehicles (BEVs) powered by 100% electric power, various hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). This summary introduces the differences between the following basic EV configurations:

Battery Electric Vehicles

A battery-powered car (BEV) is a fully powered car, usually a large electric motor and a large battery pack. Based on the type of transmission; use of clutch, gearbox, differentiation, and fixed gear; and the number of battery packs and motors there are many variations in the BEV design.

Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Unlike BEV, a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) relies on two power sources, usually an internal combustion engine and an electric battery and a motor / generator. Mild Hybrid is a low-emission form of HEV. The Mild Hybrid is a standard internal combustion engine (ICE) with a very large starting engine that can also be used as a generator, commonly called an integrated starter-generator (ISG) or alternator starter (BAS), and a very large battery. powered and recharged by car. In the Mild Hybrid, the engine must be kept open while the car is moving. However, the engine / generator can be used to power the idle stop where the engine is shut off while the vehicle is idle. The engine / generator can be used for high loads to assist the engine and increase vehicle performance. When loaded slowly, it increases the load on the engine and recharges the battery.

Series Hybrid Electric Vehicles

In the Series Hybrid there is only one way to power car tires, but two power sources. The fuel tank feeds the engine connected to the generator to charge the battery that supplies the power to the engine / generator to power the wheels through transmission even though a direct connection can be used. The engine / generator is also used to recharge the battery during acceleration and braking.

Series Hybrid can operate in the following seven ways:

The Series Hybrid can operate in the following seven modes:

  • Engine only traction
  • Electric only traction
  • Hybrid traction
  • Engine Traction and Battery Charging
  • Battery Charging and No Traction
  • Regenerative Braking
  • Hybrid Battery Changing

Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles

In Parallel Hybrid, there are two similar ways to power car tires: engine trail and electric trail. The transmission includes the engine / generator and the engine, which allows either, to power the wheels. Controlling Parallel Hybrid is much more complicated than Series Hybrid due to the need to successfully integrate the engine / generator with the engine in a way that keeps driving and operating.

Parallel Hybrid can operate in the following five ways:

  • Engine only traction
  • Electric only traction
  • Hybrid traction
  • Regenerative Braking
  • Battery charging from the engine

Series-Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Series-Parallel HEV has both series and Parallel power modes. The motors system and / or generators sometimes include a gear or power divider device allowing the engine to charge the battery. Variations in this configuration can be very complex or simple, depending on the number of motors / generators and how they are used. These configurations can be classified as Complex hybrids (such as Toyota Prius and Ford Escape Hybrids), Split-Parallel hybrids, or Power-Split hybrids.

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

A plug-in hybrid electric car (PHEV) is a HEV that can be plugged or reconnected electronically into a wall. PHEVs are separated by larger battery packs compared to other HEVs. Battery size refers to an All-Electric Range (AER) vehicle, usually within a range of 30 to 50 miles. PHEVs can have any hybrid configuration. Although there are no PHEVs available on the market today, a few companies have begun selling conversion kits and equipment to convert the standard HEV to PHEV by adding additional battery capacity as well as changing the vehicle controller and power management system.

Technopro Technologies is developing as a complete provider of e-Powertrain system with a wide range of control, control and development of full power flow to EVs. Utilizing technology transfer from competition (F1, Formula E) to the road, and proven record in mass production components, production focuses on advanced technologies to increase power density and efficiency: from 800V systems to high-speed e-motor variants, and the SiC power converter.

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