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Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure

December, 30 2021

In recent years “Long Distance Milestone Achievement " problem associated with electric vehicles (EVs) have been reduced by the introduction of hybrid EVs (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid EVs (PHEVs). Also the implementation of larger capacity battery packs in electric vehicles, "Range Anxiety" is now being reduced by adopting a well-defined "Charging Infrastructure". A comprehensive and easily accessible charging network will be critical to the widespread acceptance of electric vehicles. The development of a power charging network is widely regarded as a major need for the conversion of large-scale electromobility. Such infrastructure will not only offers more driver charging options but also promote awareness and confidence in potential car owners.

There are three key factors in accelerating the EV deployment process and building Charging Infrastructure is one of them. The image below describes the EVs roadmap network.

Different segments of vehicles (2W, 3W, PVs, CVs) may require different types of charging standards & connector. However, charging infrastructure at least in public places should be the norm to the extent that it is possible to reduce the cost of infra & provides seamless services to the customers.

Overview on EV Charging Infrastructure

Electric vehicle charging infrastructure (EVCI) is a platform that provides electrical energy to the electric vehicle battery for its recharging purpose using intelligent communication and protection technologies to ensure the safe flow of electricity. Electric vehicle charging infrastructure are also called as EV Supply Equipment (EVSE) & EV Recharging Point (EVRP).

In EVCI, the charging terminal allows users to charge electric vehicles safely with high efficiency. The charging terminal is specifically designed for multifunctional purpose that any electric car model is connected to the terminal seamlessly.

Charging stations simply deliver power to e-Mobility, usually in the form of a high AC or DC power supply.

In general, there are many types of charging infrastructure present in the world which are mainly classified as Conductive Charging & Inductive Charging. Under conductive charging systems which are using cable for power transfer, is  further classified in six groups viz. location of use, output-based, input-based, mounting structure-based, based on electric shock and environmental condition. Other types of conductive charging are pantograph-based charging and battery swapping-based charging.

Inductive charging is known as wireless charging and does not use any means of a cable or conductive component in between EVCI and EV during the process of charging the EV. The process of charging wirelessly happens through induction pads where the charging station will have a transmitting RF pad above which the EV will be stationed and receive the RF transmission through a receiving RF pad inside the EV at the bottom. The power is transferred inductively from the transmitting RF pad to receiving RF pad and then through the battery management system (BMS) and to the battery.

In general, three different levels of electricity are defined but within these levels, there are a wide variety of options to consider for the different levels of electricity grid in national power generators.

Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

In EVSE, Electronic Equipment or Charging Equipment is a requirement for the discovery of an electric vehicle (EV) and can be broadly classified as:

  • AC charging devices
  • DC charging devices

In the case of AC charging, the charging speed depends on the output of the DC Power from the AC on-board converter. For example, A Level-2 Charger having single phase 220V AC, 15 Amps supply (AC output- 3.3 kW) connected to EV with 10-kWh battery Pack and AC-DC board with only 1 kW DC output can take up to 10 hours to charge full battery. High-power AC chargers are available that can charge batteries quickly depending on the battery chemistry and battery management system (BMS) on EV.

The DC Fast Charger (DCFC) with high power output can supply DC battery power and can charge the EV battery very quickly. For example, A 50 kW DCFC can charge the EV with a 25-kWh battery for 30 minutes (in theory). DCFCs are more economical as the AC-DC conversion takes place in EVSE itself rather than in a car. When EV is connected to EVSE a handshake is established between EV and EVSE, while BMS in EV controls the charging process.

To fully charge the battery at 100% capacity, the "constant voltage" (CV) charging component requires current to be reduced to an average of 10% of its "current" value fill in the last 20% of the case. This, in extreme cases, will increase the total charging time for all batteries use CC / CV charging 3.5 times the fast-charging time.

International Policies for Infrastructure Charging

Multi-dimensional efforts and collaborations will be required to promote the establishment of a charging infrastructure. Early charging infrastructure will be important, and government will definitely need to play a leadership role. Finally, with the growing number of active EVs and business models, businesses will agree to set up and use charging infrastructure.

The level of such support reflects the government's strong commitment to energy efficiency. There are examples from various major cities around the world where local governments in these cities have sponsored a number of charging stations and partnerships. National government agencies in countries such as the Netherlands, China, Germany, France, etc. have supported municipalities to install charging infrastructure. Private charging, both at home and at work, will represent most electric car chargers. Therefore, the most important thing can be given to there are policy measures and regulations around building a private charging network.

The tariff for charging EVs has to be decided by the state distribution companies (DISCOMs). Many states have decided the rates but there is no uniformity. There is a need for collaborative work from the states on tariff prices and the price shall be based on consumption. The EV tariff can be structured in such a way that consumers are incentivized to charge fees during peak and off-peak times.

Charging infrastructure requires extensive installation, operation, and repair costs and can result in significant land acquisition costs. Seeking a combination of domestic and work chargers (AC charging) can be a huge hurdle to lower prices and put those charges at a lower level.

Governments can also fund various other initiatives such as providing toll plots for land, toll tariffs, working with citizens and landowners to install AC charging infrastructure in shared parking spaces and promoting consumer awareness in densely populated areas. The automotive sector can work with banks and energy companies to build a nationwide network of charging stations (including fast-charging stations).

Emerging Trends

Induction Charging / Wireless Charging

Many manufacturers are currently working to propose that local communities and businesses eliminate cable and socket charging through a non-contact charging system for electric vehicles. A floor plan can be installed on a large scale on road asphalt or attached to off-road parking lots. Charging the car battery parked above the system will be done wirelessly by import. The technology is based on charging power, which includes electricity transmitted through the air gap between two magnetic coils.

It allows electrical power to be transferred from the grid to the car without the help of cables. The transfer of power occurs by a combination of magnetic resonance between two copper coils of the same frequency, one attached to the ground and the other placed under the vehicle.

Battery Swapping

The government has strongly considered the replacement of the battery as a means of reducing the issues of (a) ownership costs and (b) the extent of the problems facing electric vehicles. The Battery Replacement Infrastructure supports the replacement of batteries removed from a car with fully charged battery shelves. The biggest advantage of battery replacement is the reduced charging time in EVs as battery switches can be done within 5-15 minutes compared to the eight hours required to charge the battery. This strategy of providing a distributed battery exchange model is expected to have the effect of reducing the cost of previous EVs as cars can be sold with the battery available for rent.

Vehicle to Grid (V2G) Energy Transfer

Raised by power utilities and academics, the V2G Smart Grid center considers the ability of power generators to measure their production capacity by pulling power from EVs connected to grid batteries during daytime high demands and returning them to vehicles during low night demand. It may require the charging stations to be able to transfer power in the same direction including power inverted power inverters and the frequency of power supply back to the grid.

Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) describes a system in which a combination of dynamic energy, which travels between electric vehicles, such as electric vehicles (BEV) and plug-in hybrids (PHEV), and the power grid. This is done by selling demand response services by reaching a billing rate or restoring electricity to the grid.

The problem with charging access to infrastructure is complex and huge and building a complete charging network can be very costly. In addition, because the industry is rapidly changing, current ideas about technology and driver preferences may not hold up in the future.

TechnoPro India lays the foundations for the future of smart, honest, and greenhouse emission-free mobility, accessible to everyone, everywhere. TechnoPro India offers a complete EV solution from compact, high-capacity AC boxes, reliable DC fast stations with strong connections, to new electric bus charging systems, using infrastructure that meets the needs of the next generation of smart travel. TechnoPro India's connected chargers enable fast global service and efficient maintenance.

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